Here is a detailed document on the background and economics inherent in the trade of "cores", the industry term for the key function product (empty toner cartridge, used 'disposable' camera, ATX desktop computer for 'barebones', non-R4 CRT monitor tube, etc.).
Here is the key USA position, top of Page 2:
"REMANUFACTURED GOODS ARE NOT USED GOODS SOLD 'AS IS'"
WTO: USA Remanufacturing and Refurbishing Paper